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Social Identity

The distributional consequences of political reservations

This article identifies and attempts to fill in the gaps in understanding the effects of reservations for Scheduled Castes (SCs) in Panchayats. Using data from a state-wide census, multiple administra...

  • Articles

Caste-based differences in self-help groups: Evidence from a rural livelihood programme

The National Rural Livelihood Mission aims to increase income and improve wellbeing for rural households. Using survey data from nine states in India, this article analyses the existence of caste-base...

  • Articles

India’s Women’s Reservation Act: A big win for governance and beyond

Amidst debates about the recently passed women's reservation act and whether it will reduce gender disparities on the ground, Wattal and Gopalan summarise evidence from a number of randomised evaluati...

  • Perspectives
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How class and caste influence school choice

Families' socioeconomic status impacts how parents make decisions regarding their children's education. Taking into account the interplay of caste and class, this paper finds that when families are to...

  • Articles

Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials in India: An update

Building on past research, Saswata Ghosh and Pallabi Das estimate the state- and district-level fertility differentials between Hindus and Muslims using data from the latest round of the NFHS. They sh...

  • Articles

The complexity of female empowerment interventions

In the final post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Siwan Anderson unpacks the complex dimensions and interactions between measures of female empowerment. She hi...

  • Perspectives

Left behind or left ahead? Implications of male migration on female political engagement

In the eleventh post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, using data from both the IHDS and a survey conducted in rural Bihar, Rithika Kumar finds that migration-dr...

  • Articles

The effect of domestic violence on cardiovascular risk

In the tenth post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Seetha Menon investigates the causal relationship between domestic violence and increased risk of cardiovascu...

  • Articles

The impact of religious violence and social conflict on women’s age of marriage

In the ninth post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Debnath et al. explore the effects of Hindu-Muslim riots on decisions around women's marriage. They find that...

  • Articles

The empowering effects of employment on married women

In the seventh post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Madeline McKelway and Julia Redstone outline the findings of a study investigating the empowerment effects ...

  • Articles

Inching towards college: Exploring gender and mobility in India

In the sixth post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Vijaya at al. investigate mobility constraints among college-going students in Jalandhar. They find that whil...

  • Notes from the Field

Living with the in-laws: Effect on women’s employment in India

In the fourth post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Rajshri Jayaraman considers the negative correlation between high rates of co-residence with in-laws and low...

  • Articles

Women’s Month 2023: An International Women’s Day series

Throughout the month of March, I4I will be hosting the latest evidence and perspectives to mark International Women’s Day 2023. Follow this campaign across platforms and join the conversation using ...

  • Symposium

The state of Adivasi livelihoods after 75 years of planned development

Despite efforts to ensure their wellbeing, the Adivasi community remains one of the most deprived in India. In this post, Chaudhuri and Ghosh discuss the findings of a study surveying the livelihood s...

  • Articles

Motherhood, childcare and wages in India

Despite studies emphasising the role of parenthood as central to gender wage inequality in wealthy countries, these wage dynamics in developing countries are poorly understood. This article looks at t...

  • Articles

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Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)


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Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)


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Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)


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Indian Institute of Management Bangalore


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Asian Development Bank & Indian Institute of Manag


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Most Popular Social Identity Posts

A division of labourers: Caste identity and efficiency in India

Castes in India are closely associated with certain occupations and determine the jobs done by millions. This study uses a new dataset to show that a large proportion of workers still work in their ca...

  • Articles

Sex ratios and religion in India and South Asia

In South Asia, low child sex ratios are increasingly an isolated Indian phenomenon. Within India, child sex ratios are ‘normal’ among Christians and Muslims but much lower among Hindus, Sikhs, and...

  • Articles

Measuring caste inequality across Indian states

Although recent research on inequality shows that upper castes have the highest levels of material well-being, there is a wide variation in caste inequality across India. Measuring three forms of cast...

  • Articles