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A data story on female child marriage in India

In the eighth post of I4I’s month-long campaign to mark International Women’s Day 2023, Shubham Mudgil and Swathi Rao from The Quantum Hub use a novel dataset based on NFHS-5 to present data highl...

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Nutritional penalty of motherhood: Can midday meals for children also improve their mothers’ health outcomes?

Midday meals provide a nutritional safety net for children and improve their learning outcomes and attendance. Nikita Sharma argues that spillover benefits might also exist for mothers of the children...

  • Perspectives

To invest in sanitation or not? The role of gender differences in perceptions

Although sanitation is essential for health, many households remain without a toilet due to financial constraints. This article describes the extent to which perceptions of costs and benefits of sanit...

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How investing in girls’ education can reduce domestic violence in India

One-third of women in India aged 15-49 report experiencing domestic violence. This article examines the impact of an increase in education among girls due to the District Primary Education Programme ...

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Enhancing secondary school learning: Role of remedial camps and teacher flexibility

A key dilemma in Indian education is that while children are enrolled in school, they are not actually learning. Based on an experiment in Odisha, this article explores possible solutions to the learn...

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Transforming menstrual hygiene in India

Launched in 2014, the ‘Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram’ seeks to improve menstrual hygiene in India by addressing issues around affordability as well as awareness. In this post, Kanika Dua con...

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What ASER 2023 reveals about the gender gap in confidence

The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2023 finds that although gender gaps in school enrolment have fallen over the years, girls still lag behind in terms of access to and use of digital techno...

  • Notes from the Field

Can safe drinking water improve children’s educational outcomes?

It is well-established that treated water has health benefits, but can it also enhance children’s educational outcomes? Analysing India Human Development Survey data, this article provides evidence ...

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The tribal communities of central India: Challenges and way forward

The ‘Status of Adivasi Livelihoods’ Report has once again brought attention to the dire situation of tribes in central India. Based on a survey of tribal households in Madhya Pradesh and Chattisga...

  • Notes from the Field

Improving healthcare access to address the rise in non-communicable diseases among Indian women

In light of the changing healthcare burden for women, with a rise in mortality due to non-communicable diseases, Bhan and Shukla outline the incidence of diseases in Indian states over the last two de...

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Second Ashok Kotwal Memorial Lecture: Inequality, Labour and Social Democracy

The Ashok Kotwal Memorial Lecture was instituted in 2022, in memory of our founding Editor-in-Chief, as an annual lecture on key issues of development. For its second edition, I4I hosted Professor Pra...

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Impact of India’s Mission Parivar Vikas on fertility rates and family planning

India’s large-scale family planning programme, Mission Parivar Vikas, improves access to contraception, offers monetary incentives to beneficiaries for programme adoption, and disseminates informati...

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Persistent struggle for learning: A tale of tribal regions

The recent National Achievement Survey shows that tribal districts lag behind in learning outcomes. This article suggests this to be of significant concern, as the distribution of schooling infrastruc...

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How socioeconomic status shapes parental beliefs about child academic achievement

This article highlights the prevalence of socioeconomic disparities in parental beliefs about their child’s performance – often outpacing actual disparities in academic performance. Analysis using...

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The role of caste and gender in determining science education in India

Studying science at the higher secondary level is essential to pursue further STEM education in India. However, based on recent research, this article documents the prevalence of gender- and caste-bas...

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Madhuri Agarwal

National Foundation For Educational Research


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King's College London


Souparna Maji

University of Geneva


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University of Lausanne


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University of Delware


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University of Delaware


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Ohio State University

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Khandker Wahedur Rahman

University of Oxford

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Most Popular Human Development Posts

Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials in India: District-level estimates from Census 2011

The 2011 Indian Census data show a higher growth rate of Muslim population compared to the Hindu population. This article provides an in-depth picture of Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials at the di...

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Ten steps to transform the quality of education in India

In this article, Sridhar Rajagopalan, Managing Director of Educational Initiatives, suggests 10 initiatives that can help transform the quality of education in India.

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Understanding India’s mental health crisis

Since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, several reports have indicated a worsening of mental health issues among individuals across age groups. In this post, Michele Mary Bernadine examines the stat...

  • Perspectives