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Human Development

Historical land policies and socioeconomic development: The case of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is characterised by significant intra-state variation in developmental outcomes, with research suggesting that this could be partially attributable to the long-run effects of differences...

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How teachers’ beliefs can shape motivation and student learning

While teacher effort is crucial for student learning, evidence suggests that this is not what teachers themselves believe. This article presents findings from a randomised experiment involving a psych...

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Aiding the search for good jobs: Evidence from Uganda

To design policies that lead young labour-market entrants to good jobs, it is important to understand job search processes and what affects the ability to find gainful employment. Based on an experime...

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The tribal communities of central India: Challenges and way forward

The ‘Status of Adivasi Livelihoods’ Report has once again brought attention to the dire situation of tribes in central India. Based on a survey of tribal households in Madhya Pradesh and Chattisga...

  • Notes from the Field

Improving healthcare access to address the rise in non-communicable diseases among Indian women

In light of the changing healthcare burden for women, with a rise in mortality due to non-communicable diseases, Bhan and Shukla outline the incidence of diseases in Indian states over the last two de...

  • Perspectives

Second Ashok Kotwal Memorial Lecture: Inequality, Labour and Social Democracy

The Ashok Kotwal Memorial Lecture was instituted in 2022, in memory of our founding Editor-in-Chief, as an annual lecture on key issues of development. For its second edition, I4I hosted Professor Pra...

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Impact of India’s Mission Parivar Vikas on fertility rates and family planning

India’s large-scale family planning programme, Mission Parivar Vikas, improves access to contraception, offers monetary incentives to beneficiaries for programme adoption, and disseminates informati...

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Persistent struggle for learning: A tale of tribal regions

The recent National Achievement Survey shows that tribal districts lag behind in learning outcomes. This article suggests this to be of significant concern, as the distribution of schooling infrastruc...

  • Perspectives

How socioeconomic status shapes parental beliefs about child academic achievement

This article highlights the prevalence of socioeconomic disparities in parental beliefs about their child’s performance – often outpacing actual disparities in academic performance. Analysis using...

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The role of caste and gender in determining science education in India

Studying science at the higher secondary level is essential to pursue further STEM education in India. However, based on recent research, this article documents the prevalence of gender- and caste-bas...

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Home-based learning through low-cost mobile teaching: Findings from Odisha

Evaluating the effectiveness of a low-cost Home-Based Learning programme implemented during the Covid-19 school closures in Odisha, this article finds that it improved the mathematics and language lea...

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The ‘invisible’ disability of mental illness: Barriers to social security access

Sakshi Sharda writes about the how a lack of clarity on the assessment and diagnosis of mental health and poor implementation of social security schemes increases the vulnerability of those livings wi...

  • Perspectives

Making menstrual health a welfare priority: Insights from three states

Public policies on menstrual health have mainly focussed on distributing sanitary napkins to women and girls. However, in this note, Tanya Rana shares some insights gained from conversations with fron...

  • Notes from the Field

How Prayagraj is addressing learning poverty in its Anganwadis

Despite increasing school enrolment rates, learning levels in India remain low. In this note, Agrawal and Kheria describe the efforts being made by the district administration in Prayagraj, Uttar Prad...

  • Notes from the Field

Building resilient education systems: Evidence from five countries

With education disrupted due to the Covid-19 pandemic for over a billion children worldwide, this article emphasises the need to create an education system that is resilient and maintains continuity d...

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Recent Contributors


Farzana Afridi

Indian Statistical Institute, Delhi Centre


Sonalde Desai

University of Maryland


Kartikeya Batra

University of Maryland


Abhradeep Karmakar

St. Lawrence University


Kira Villa

University of New Mexico


Rashmi Barua

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Prarthna Agarwal

Prarthna Agarwal Goel

Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University


Deboshmita Brahma

University of Calcutta

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Most Popular Human Development Posts

Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials in India: District-level estimates from Census 2011

The 2011 Indian Census data show a higher growth rate of Muslim population compared to the Hindu population. This article provides an in-depth picture of Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials at the di...

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Ten steps to transform the quality of education in India

In this article, Sridhar Rajagopalan, Managing Director of Educational Initiatives, suggests 10 initiatives that can help transform the quality of education in India.

  • Perspectives

Understanding India’s mental health crisis

Since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, several reports have indicated a worsening of mental health issues among individuals across age groups. In this post, Michele Mary Bernadine examines the stat...

  • Perspectives