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Ashok Kotwal
GST Explainer: Introduction
Posted on: 16 Oct 2017
Seventeen years after its framework was formed, India’s biggest tax reform – the goods and ... read on »
Introducing a new feature: ‘Explainers’
Posted on: 16 Oct 2017
Our day-to-day lives are tossed around due to economic changes, resulting sometimes from g ... read on »
On demonetisation
Posted on: 23 Dec 2016
On the evening of 8 November, the Prime Minister announced on national television that Rs. ... read on »
Introduction to e-Symposium: The GDP conundrum
Posted on: 16 Nov 2016
Ever since India’s Central Statistical Organisation came out with the new GDP series with ... read on »

Topic: Land

Land records and titles in India
Prachee Mishra , Roopal Suhag
Posted on: 20/11/2017 09:19:39
Topics:   Land


Land ownership is broadly determined by access to a land title, which protects the rights of the title-holder, and impacts livelihoods, and industrial, economic, and social growth. However, land titles in India are unclear due to various reasons. In this article, Mishra and Suhag discuss those reasons, policies implemented to address poor land records, and challenges in moving towards a system of State-guaranteed titles.
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Impact of community mobilisation on land rights governance
Sanjay Kumar , Andre Nickow
Posted on: 05/10/2017 08:49:33
Topics:   Land


Homestead land rights, that is, the security a household enjoys over the plot of land on which its dwelling is built, shape livelihoods and living standards for poor and marginalised populations in rural areas. This column reports initial findings from an impact evaluation of a programme that seeks to improve homestead rights in Bihar through the formation of village-level community-based organisations.
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Land acquisition and corporate investment: Legacy of historical land ceiling legislations?
Sarmistha Pal , Tiago Pinheiro , Zoya Saher
Posted on: 23/04/2017 15:38:03
Topics:   Land


Firms in India often find it difficult to purchase land, resulting in projects being delayed, relocated, or cancelled. Analysing firm- and state-level data, this column explores the impact of post-independence land reforms – especially those related to land ceilings - on corporate investment in the country.
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Land acquisition: Need for a shift in discourse?
Dhanmanjiri Sathe
Posted on: 25/01/2017 09:28:48

Empirical evidence increasingly shows that farmers are willing to have their land acquired if the price-compensation package is acceptable. Given this trend, Dhanmanjiri Sathe argues that the discourse on land acquisition has been stagnant for a long time and needs to be changed.
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Land acquisition law: The buck stops with the states
Dhanmanjiri Sathe
Posted on: 07/12/2016 09:21:56

Some believe that by encouraging states to enact their own versions of the land acquisition law, the central government is diluting the law. In this article, Dhanmanjiri Sathe, Professor of Economics at Savitribai Phule Pune University, argues that states have much more experience and expertise in land acquisition. Given the diversity in development across states, it is only prudent that the law be customised to suit local requirements.
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Land and financial misallocation in India
Gilles Duranton , Ejaz Ghani , Arti Grover Goswami , William Kerr
Posted on: 20/07/2016 09:20:53

Optimising the allocation of factors of production – land, capital and labour - improves productivity. In India, where evidence suggests land is severely misallocated to inefficient manufacturing firms, access to financing is disproportionately tied to access to land. This column examines the link between the misallocation of land and access to capital through financial markets. A very strong positive correlation emerges between the two, consistent with the fact that land and buildings can provide strong collateral support for accessing finance from the credit market.
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Land in India: Market price vs. fundamental value
Gurbachan Singh
Posted on: 29/02/2016 08:05:53
Topics:   Finance , Land
Tags:  


The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill, 2015, is focused on protecting the few home buyers who can afford to buy homes but does not address the issue of high land prices, which is a very serious problem. This column demonstrates that the market prices of land in India are very high compared to fundamental values, and to market prices in developed countries.
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Regulating land markets: The colonial inheritance
Anand Swamy
Posted on: 10/02/2016 10:01:33
Topics:   Land


State intervention in markets is usually thought of as a post-independence phenomenon. However, this column demonstrates that extensive State intervention in land and credit transactions can be traced back to policies adopted by the British Raj in India, beginning in the late 19th century.
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How has land acquisition impacted dalits? A case study from Maharashtra
Dhanmanjiri Sathe
Posted on: 17/12/2015 09:56:48
Topics:   Caste , Land


Land ownership in Indian villages is inextricably linked to caste, with dalits owing little or no land. Based on a survey in Maharashtra, this column assesses the impact of land acquisition and subsequent development on dalits vis-à-vis non-dalits. The findings suggest that while economic development can make inroads into the caste system, it possibly cannot end casteism in the short run.
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Land acquisition Act: Addressing both justice and prosperity
Maitreesh Ghatak , Parikshit Ghosh
Posted on: 29/07/2015 09:46:17
Topics:   Land


The Modi government’s land acquisition ordinance did away with the consent and social impact assessment requirements for private projects in certain sectors under UPA’s 2013 land Act. In this article, Ghatak and Ghosh contend that in seeking to eliminate these hurdles, the ordinance puts more weight on prosperity and less on justice. In their view, justice and prosperity need not be irreconcilable objectives.
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Property rights, household conflict and suicide in India
Siwan Anderson , Garance Genicot
Posted on: 09/07/2015 20:35:55
Topics:   Gender , Land


Suicide has become the second leading cause of death among young Indians. This column finds that improved inheritance rights for women are associated with an increase in the incidence of suicide among both men and women in India, particularly men. Strengthened position of women alters negotiations within the household resulting in increased family conflict and intense stress for individuals.
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Land acquisition, industrialisation, and displaced households
Saumik Paul , Vengadeshvaran J. Sarma
Posted on: 01/07/2015 09:44:35

Does industrialisation on acquired land benefit those displaced? Evaluating the long-term livelihood effects of the first Special Economic Zone in the state of West Bengal, this column finds that the impact on displaced households is mixed. While they are more likely to be employed in the industrial zone, their returns to education are lower than that of other households.
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Land acquisition debate: The price is not right
Maitreesh Ghatak , Parikshit Ghosh
Posted on: 31/03/2015 00:00:00

The central government’s move to amend the 2013 land acquisition Act has come under criticism for being ‘anti-farmer’. In this article, Maitreesh Ghatak and Parikshit Ghosh argue that while the amendments would streamline the land acquisition process, the law will still be fatally flawed unless a more rational method of determining compensation for land owners is put in place.
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Land-shackled - II
Devesh Kapur , T.V. Somanathan , Arvind Subramanian
Posted on: 22/10/2014 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


Rising land scarcity and land market distortions are increasingly becoming a binding constraint on development in India. In their previous article, Kapur, Somanathan and Subramanian diagnosed India’s land problem. In this part, they propose policy reforms for addressing the problem and ensuring that land facilitates rather than impedes development.
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Land-shackled
Devesh Kapur , T.V. Somanathan , Arvind Subramanian
Posted on: 17/10/2014 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


Rising land scarcity and land market distortions are increasingly becoming a binding constraint on development in India. In the first of a two-part series, Kapur, Somanathan and Subramanian diagnose India’s land problem. In the next part, they propose policy reforms for addressing the problem and ensuring that land facilitates rather than impedes development.
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The new land law: Are the states up to the challenge?
Ram Singh
Posted on: 25/10/2013 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


In the third part of the land law debate, Ram Singh asserts that the Act is biased against projects of state governments, and emphasises the need for states to undertake long overdue land reforms. He suggests amending the Act such that Public Private Partnerships and private companies are clearly distinguished, and there is no scope for strategic manipulations during the acquisition process.
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The Land Acquisition Act is deeply flawed
Maitreesh Ghatak , Parikshit Ghosh
Posted on: 23/10/2013 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


In the second part of the Land Acquisition Act debate, Ghatak and Ghosh argue that the legislation is ill-conceived and falls short on several counts. They contend that the formula for compensation is arbitrary, and recommend holding large-scale land auctions to discover the true value of land. They contradict Pande’s point that the Act strikes a fine balance between industrialists and farmers.
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A second debate on the Land Acquisition Act
Varad Pande
Posted on: 21/10/2013 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


Of all the recently enacted parliamentary legislations, none is more important for industrial investment and growth than the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act. We have already had a debate on this Bill before it became an Act. The series of three articles we are featuring this week, though not presented in the form of a debate as previously done, present arguments on different sides of the same issue. In effect, it is a debate – our second debate on the Act. The first article below by Varad Pande (Ministry of Rural Development) lays out the motivation for the Act and defends its provisions as a balanced trade-off. The two articles that follow: one by Parikshit Ghosh (Delhi School of Economics) and Maitreesh Ghatak (London School of Economics) and another by Ram Singh (Delhi School of Economics), raise some questions about its provisions. We are hoping that the series will lead to further exchange clarifying the arguments on both sides.
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A ‘new’ land reform policy in India?
Dilip Mookherjee
Posted on: 11/10/2013 00:00:00
Topics:   Land
Tags:   land reform


The Ministry of Rural Development has recently issued a draft of a new National Land Reform Policy. In this article, Dilip Mookherjee discusses the key features, and presents his views on the pros and cons of the draft policy.
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Why do insecure rural property rights persist?
Leopoldo Fergusson
Posted on: 18/09/2013 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


Poorly specified and weakly enforced property rights over land may reduce productivity in the agricultural sector. This column examines why strong private property rights are not adopted more widely, and offers a theory of the determination of rural property rights institutions.
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The Land Acquisition Bill
Participants: Pranab Bardhan , Shri Vallabh Goyal , Dilip Mookherjee , Abhirup Sarkar
Posted on: 26/04/2013 16:11:29
Topics:   Land


Will the new Land Acquisition Bill make protests like those in Singur and Bhatta-Parsaul a thing of the past? Will it make land acquisition so expensive and difficult that the pace of industrialisation will suffer? Will it achieve justice? Development? Neither? Experts from academia and industry examine a piece of legislation that is likely to have far reaching consequences for the future of the country.
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The political economies of land acquisition
Sanjoy Chakravorty
Posted on: 17/10/2012 00:00:00

India is in the process of reforming the way that land is bought and sold – a source of heated debate as many blame the current laws for unfairly forcing millions from their homes and livelihoods. This column argues that the latest proposals focus on the politics and overlook the economics. As a result, they are in danger of solving one problem by creating another.
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Developing a Land Acquisition Policy for India
Maitreesh Ghatak , Dilip Mookherjee
Posted on: 05/09/2012 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


The Land Acquisition Bill is a key piece of legislation under consideration in the Indian Parliament. This column argues that the current policy on compensating landowners, as proposed in the Bill, is misguided and could adversely affect the pace and character of future growth in India. It draws lessons from economic theory as well as the failed land acquisition experience in Singur to propose a workable model for determining appropriate compensation for land acquisition.
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The value of land administration information for financial development
Aparajita Goyal
Posted on: 28/08/2012 00:00:00
Topics:   Land , Finance


While the effect of improved property rights on economic development has been extensively studied, the specific relationship between better land administration information and improved credit access is understudied. This column uses evidence to demonstrate that the computerisation of land registries reduces the cost of lending and can result in expanded access to credit for urban borrowers. It lists certain factors that can dilute these positive effects and argues that these need to be managed.
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Land acquisition: Is there a way out?
Maitreesh Ghatak , Parikshit Ghosh
Posted on: 16/07/2012 00:00:00
Topics:   Land


India is hungry for space to grow into a developed economy. Yet this hunger is increasingly raiding farmland and threatening traditional livelihoods. For some, this is a necessary evil, for others it is unjustified exploitation. This column argues that the debate need not be so stark and that politicians, policymakers and the public need to see that another way is possible.
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