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Ashok Kotwal
On demonetisation
Posted on: 23 Dec 2016
On the evening of 8 November, the Prime Minister announced on national television that Rs. ... read on »
Introduction to e-Symposium: The GDP conundrum
Posted on: 16 Nov 2016
Ever since India’s Central Statistical Organisation came out with the new GDP series with ... read on »
Introduction to e-Symposium: The idea of a universal basic income in the Indian context
Posted on: 26 Sep 2016
The idea of an unconditional basic income given to all citizens by the State, has caught o ... read on »
Introduction to e-Symposium: Ideas for reforms in education policy in India
Posted on: 18 Nov 2015
A New Education Policy is being formulated in India based on a time-bound grassroots consu ... read on »

Tag: migration

The puzzle of Indian urbanisation
Pronab Sen
Posted on: 12 Apr 2017
Topics:   Urbanisation
Tags:   migration


The global experience has been that as countries develop, rural-to-urban migration accelerates, and decelerates only when the urbanisation level is very high – usually well over 50%. In contrast, migration in India began decelerating when urbanisation was below 25%. In the article, Pronab Sen deconstructs this puzzle.
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The North-South urban paradox
Chinmay Tumbe
Posted on: 22 Mar 2017
Topics:   Urbanisation


Why is northern India experiencing faster urban growth but slower urbanisation relative to the South? This column addresses this question by highlighting the interconnection between the demographic transition and urban processes in India.
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Insights from long-term studies of Indian villages
Himanshu , Praveen K. Jha , Gerry Rodgers
Posted on: 23 Sep 2016

Much of our knowledge of change in rural areas depends on longitudinal village studies. Drawing upon a number of village studies carried out over the years in India, this column provides a broad picture of how the economic and social structures of villages are changing, and the consequences for production, employment, migration, inequality and other key issues.
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The missing men
Chinmay Tumbe
Posted on: 01 Sep 2016
Topics:   Gender , Jobs
Tags:   migration


Studies on skewed sex ratios in India typically focus on female deficits attributed to factors such as gender discrimination. This column finds that regions covering over 200 million people in India experience mass male out-migration with a marked impact on working-age group sex ratios. These regions are remittance economies with gendered labour markets that secure higher wages for men in the service economy but provide limited prospects for the upward mobility of women.
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Why is labour mobility in India so low?
Kaivan Munshi , Mark Rosenzweig
Posted on: 04 Jul 2016
Topics:   Jobs


Rural-to-urban migration is surprisingly low in India, compared with other large developing countries, leaving higher paying job opportunities unexploited. This column shows that well-functioning rural insurance networks are partly responsible, as they incentivise adult males to remain in villages. Policies that provide private credit to wealthy households or government safety nets to poor households would encourage greater labour mobility, but could have unintended distributional consequences.
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Impact of MNREGA on labour markets
Clément Imbert , John Papp
Posted on: 22 Dec 2014

There is an active, ongoing debate on whether MNREGA should be retained in its current form. This column reports on research which suggests that MNREGA increased rural and urban wages and reduced seasonal rural-to-urban migration. It argues that the effect of MNREGA on labour markets should play a role in the discussion on whether and how to reform the scheme.
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Do location-based incentives promote industrialisation?
Ritam Chaurey
Posted on: 23 Sep 2014

In a bid to industrialise the relatively under-industrialised states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the government implemented a tax incentive and capital subsidy scheme in the two states in 2003. This column finds the policy change led to new business creation and growth of existing firms in these states, most of which was not at the cost of neighbouring regions.
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A unique, informal banking system of rickshaw drivers in cities
Garima Agarwal , Shashank Bhatt , Skand Goel , Arushi Kaushik
Posted on: 04 Jun 2014
Topics:   Urbanisation


Seasonal, rural migrants that drive rickshaws in cities have little or no access to formal financial institutions. Based on a survey of over 100 rickshaw drivers in Delhi, this article highlights a unique mechanism used by the drivers for remitting earnings to their families back in villages, obtaining short-term loans, and managing their savings.
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The plight of ‘complimentary’ migrants: Children at brick kilns
Parul Agarwal
Posted on: 09 May 2014

Migration for work is meant to benefit families of migrant workers. But what if the families migrate along with the worker? Based on visits to brick kilns in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka, Parul Agarwal describes the plight of children of migrant workers in the Indian brick manufacturing industry.
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Short-term migration and child welfare
Diane Coffey
Posted on: 07 Oct 2013
Topics:   Education , Jobs


While much has been said about the poor working and living conditions of short-term migrants, relatively little is known of the impact of short-term migration on child welfare. This column finds that although short-term migration does not lead to child labour, children of migrants have poorer educational outcomes.
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Migrating out of poverty: The role of finance
Meghana Ayyagiri , Thorsten Beck , Mohammad Hoseini
Posted on: 13 Sep 2013

Financial liberalisation has been controversial as it is not clear whom the expanded credit allocation actually benefits. Using variation across time and states in India, this column finds strong evidence that financial deepening reduces rural poverty, especially among the self-employed. Financial deepening is also found to be associated with an inter-state migration trend from rural areas into the tertiary sector in urban areas.
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A case for including migrants’ remittances in inter-state comparisons
Chinmay Tumbe
Posted on: 21 Jun 2013
Topics:   Economic Growth


Gross State Domestic Product, a widely used measure to compare incomes across states in India, does not include migrants’ remittances. This column argues that remittances have a bearing on drawing valid inter-state comparisons, especially for high-remittance receiving states like Kerala, Punjab and Goa, and on deliberations on fiscal federalism.
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