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Ejaz Ghani
World Bank
eghani@worldbank.org
Ejaz Ghani, an Indian national, is currently Economic Advisor at The World Bank. He has worked on Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Corporate Strategy, and Independent Evaluation Unit. He has written on economic growth, macro policies, poverty, employment, entrepreneurship, urbanisation, gender, trade, decentralisation, and agriculture. He has been a consultant at ILO, UNCTAD, and UNICEF.

He has edited several books including Reshaping Tomorrow--Is South Asia Ready for the Big Leap? Oxford University Press 2011; The Poor Half Billion in South Asia,Oxford University Press 2010; The Service Revolution in South Asia,Oxford University Press 2010;Accelerating Growth and Job Creation in South Asia(with S. Ahmed) 2009, Promoting Economic Cooperation in South Asia (with S. Ahmed and S. Kelegama), 2009; and Growth and Regional Integration (with S. Ahmed) Macmillan 2007.

Prior to joining The World Bank, he taught economics at St. Anne's College (Oxford University) and Shri Ram College of Commerce (Delhi University). He obtained an M.Phil. & D.Phil. in Economics from Oxford University. He did his schooling in Bihar; Bachelors at St. Stephen's College; and Masters at Jawaharlal Nehru University, India. He is an Inlaks scholar.

Articles By Ejaz Ghani
Land and financial misallocation in India
Posted On: 20 Jul 2016


Optimising the allocation of factors of production – land, capital and labour - improves productivity. In India, where evidence suggests land is severely misallocated to inefficient manufacturing firms, access to financing is disproportionately tied to access to land. This column examines the link between the misallocation of land and access to capital through financial markets. A very strong positive correlation emerges between the two, consistent with the fact that land and buildings can provide strong collateral support for accessing finance from the credit market.
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India’s energy efficiency
Posted On: 10 Nov 2015


India is the fourth largest energy consumer in the world but is not well endowed with energy resources, making efficiency in energy use very important. This column analyses the spatial dynamics of electricity usage in India’s manufacturing sector. Such an understanding can help in defining a more focused and targeted energy policy.
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Rise of informality in India’s tradable manufacturing sector
Posted On: 13 Jul 2015

Topics:   Jobs

The vast informal sector in India affects everything from poverty to growth. This column presents new facts on how Indian job growth in manufacturing is concentrated in informal tradable industries, especially one-person establishments. These features are most closely linked to the urbanisation of informal Indian manufacturing, but subcontracting and rising female participation also appear to play noteworthy roles.
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Can services be a growth escalator in low-income countries?
Posted On: 01 Dec 2014

Topics:   Economic Growth

Just like the East Asian Tigers, the Lions of Africa are now growing much faster than the developed economies. However, this column shows that the growth escalators in Africa are different than in East Asia. The East Asian Tigers benefitted from a rapidly expanding manufacturing sector. The African Lions are benefitting from increases in productivity in the service sector, while the agricultural sector remains unproductive.
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Growing through cities in India
Posted On: 20 Jun 2014


Do cities grow through specialisation or diversity? This column measures specialisation and diversity for the manufacturing and services sectors in India. It finds that Indian districts with a broader set of industries exhibit greater employment growth. This is particularly true for low population densities, rural areas and unorganised sector, reflecting knowledge flow and the inclusive nature of employment growth due to diversity.
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What makes cities more competitive in India?
Posted On: 07 Mar 2014

Topics:   Urbanisation

Policymakers in both developed and developing countries want to make cities more competitive, attract new entrepreneurs, boost economic growth, and promote job creation. This column shows that the two most consistent factors that bring entrepreneurs in manufacturing and services to a district in India are its education and quality of local physical infrastructure.
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India’s spatial disparities: Have big cities become too congested?
Posted On: 17 Jan 2014

Topics:   Urbanisation

A key driver of the Indian economy is its rapidly growing service sector. This column compares the spatial growth pattern of the sector in India and other countries. It is found that while in US and Europe, the service sector is becoming increasing concentrated in medium-sized locations, high-density locations in India such as Mumbai and Chennai continue to attract more service sector jobs, causing congestion.
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Who creates jobs?
Posted On: 02 Aug 2013

Topics:   Jobs

With millions of young people entering the labour market each year, the big question is whether there will be enough jobs for them. But who actually creates these jobs? This column looks at data from India suggesting that young and small firms play a vital role. Policymakers just need to support them.
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The Golden Quadrilateral: Highway to success
Posted On: 10 May 2013

Topics:   Infrastructure

The Golden Quadrilateral, which connects four major cities in India, is the fifth-longest highway in the world. This column presents research that finds that by improving connectivity, the highway has helped with the efficient distribution of industries across locations. It has facilitated the shift of land and building intensive industries from the core to peripheries of cities, and has made medium-sized cities more attractive locations for manufacturing activity.
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Boosting shared prosperity in South Asia
Posted On: 04 Mar 2013


Two-thirds of the poor in India and other South Asian countries live in the lagging regions. This column examines whether there are poverty traps that make it difficult to achieve shared prosperity, and if the current fiscal decentralisation arrangements in South Asia are working to the benefit of the poor regions. It highlights the need for shifting the locus of policy from the national to sub-national level, and from leading to lagging regions.
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Is India’s manufacturing sector moving out of cities?
Posted On: 15 Feb 2013

Topics:   Urbanisation

While urbanisation is moving ahead at a rapid pace in India, industrialisation has slowed down. What explains this disconnect between urbanisation and infrastructure? This column presents results of a study that suggests that the formal manufacturing sector is moving from urban to rural locations, and the informal sector is moving from rural to urban locations.
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What will South Asia look like in 2025?
Posted On: 19 Dec 2012

Topics:   Economic Growth

What will India and the rest of South Asia look like in 2025? This column argues that a growth miracle can quickly turn in to a growth disaster. It asks what can be done today to reshape tomorrow.
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South Asia’s bottom half billion
Posted On: 09 Nov 2012

Tags:   South Asia

South Asia has more people in extreme poverty than Sub-Saharan Africa. This column asks why such conditions continue in the second fastest growing region in the world. It argues that growth is extremely important and necessary but not sufficient for reducing poverty – policymakers need to combine it with social policies that will provide better education, healthcare, and bring about social change
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What explains gender disparities in economic participation in India?
Posted On: 21 Aug 2012

Topics:   Gender , Jobs

The UN Global Gender Gap data shows that women’s economic participation and opportunity is worse in India than in 95% of all other countries studied. This column attempts to uncover what drives the gender balances of new enterprise in India and suggests measures for promoting women’s entrepreneurship and economic participation.
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