Jobs
 
The challenge of job creation
Ashok Kotwal
Posted on: 15 Dec 2017
Topics:   Jobs

The process of economic transformation that entails labour transitioning from low- to high-productivity activities, been much slower in India than in other Asian countries like China. Why is this so and what can be done to generate more productive jobs in India or make existing jobs more productive, faster? In this editorial, Ashok Kotwal discusses the challenge of job creation in the Indian economy.

Ashok Kotwal will be moderating a panel discussion on this topic between Kaushik Basu (Cornell University), Renana Jhabvala (SEWA), and Pronab Sen (IGC India), on Monday, 18 December 2017, 7 pm, at IIC Delhi.

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Waiting for jobs
Radhicka Kapoor
Posted on: 14 Dec 2017
Topics:   Jobs
Tags:   data

Assessing the extent of job creation in India is constrained by lack of comprehensive, real-time employment data. This column presents statistics from a detailed analysis of multiple data sources and surveys to examine latest employment trends. It confirms the languid pace of job creation in India, particularly in the organised sector, over the last few years.
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Is small beautiful? A critical evaluation of MSME policy and performance in India
Shromona Ganguly
Posted on: 12 Dec 2017
Topics:   Economic Growth , Jobs

Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have significance in a labour-abundant country like India, and various policies are in place to promote the sector. Analysing MSME data from various sources, this column shows that the structure of manufacturing MSMEs has changed significantly in the last decade: the share of capital-intensive industries in output has increased; labour productivity remains very low with possible replacement of labour with capital.
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Structural transformation and spillovers from ‘Industrial Areas’
David Blakeslee , Ritam Chaurey , Ram Fishman , Samreen Malik
Posted on: 07 Dec 2017
Topics:   Economic Growth , Jobs

A defining feature of economic development is the reallocation of labour from subsistence agriculture to manufacturing. To shed light on this process, this column analyses Karnataka’s Industrial Areas (IAs) programme that facilitated the establishment of industrial firms in rural areas. It finds that IAs caused a large increase in the number of firms and employment with substantial spillovers to neighbouring villages, and triggered a classic ‘structural transformation’ of the economy.
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How did de-reservation of small-scale industry affect employment?
Ann E. Harrison , Leslie Martin , Shanthi Nataraj
Posted on: 05 Dec 2017
Topics:   Jobs

To protect small, labour-intensive manufacturing enterprises and boost employment, the Indian government reserved certain products for exclusive production by such enterprises. This policy was gradually phased out during 1997-2015. This column finds that dismantling of the reservation, in fact, led to increases in overall employment, driven by entrants into the de-reserved product space and incumbents that were previously constrained by the policy’s size limits.
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Changes in the nature of female workforce participation in India
P.C. Mohanan
Posted on: 14 Jul 2017
Topics:   Gender , Jobs
Tags:  

Declining female workforce participation in India is a matter of grave concern, and a puzzle in the face of increased overall economic growth. This column shows that although the proportion of working women – based on estimates from the National Sample Survey - has fallen, there is improvement in terms of the number of days of work by women in the workforce, especially in rural areas.

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The demographic impact of extended paid maternity leave in Bangladesh
Salma Ahmed
Posted on: 14 Jun 2017
Topics:   Gender , Jobs

In March 2017, Indian Parliament passed the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill, 2016 extending paid maternity leave to 26 weeks. This column analyses the impact of extension of paid maternity leave in Bangladesh in 2006 and 2010, on infant mortality, female labour force participation, and fertility rates.
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How the American dream led to India’s IT boom
Gaurav Khanna , Nicolas Morales
Posted on: 29 May 2017

In the context of the ongoing global debate on migration policies, this column shows that the H-1B visa programme of the US had a powerful impact on the US IT sector, and played a prominent role in spreading the boom to India.
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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The demand side
Sonalde Desai
Posted on: 07 Mar 2017
Topics:   Gender , Jobs
Tags:  

National Sample Survey data shows a decline in rural women’s workforce participation between 2004-05 and 2011-12. Rising rural incomes and women’s education over the same period have been taken as evidence of supply-side factors for the decline in participation. Analysing data from the India Human Development Surveys, this column suggests that the explanation may instead be a lack of demand for female labour.

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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The supply side
Farzana Afridi , Taryn Dinkelman , Kanika Mahajan
Posted on: 05 Mar 2017
Topics:   Gender , Jobs
Tags:  

Analysis of National Sample Survey data shows that low rates of female labour force participation in India are concentrated among married women in rural areas. This column suggests that this is partly because women with medium levels of education choose to spend more time on child care and domestic work.

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