Jobs
 
Is the structure of Indian manufacturing geared towards job creation?
Sharmila Kantha
Posted on: 05 Dec 2016
Topics:   Jobs

Government of India has envisaged adding 100 million jobs in manufacturing by 2022. This column finds that the structure of the country’s manufacturing sector is misaligned with the objective of job creation. Subsectors that have low potential to generate jobs dominate the manufacturing profile. To generate jobs, more employment-intensive subsectors should be promoted.
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Minimum wage legislation for domestic workers: Does it work?
Rohan Gudibande , Arun Jacob
Posted on: 28 Nov 2016
Topics:   Jobs

Between 2005 and 2009, for the first time, seven Indian states notified minimum wages for domestic workers. This column evaluates the impact of the legislation in terms of real wages and employment opportunities for domestic workers in four of these states. It finds that notifying minimum wages by itself has limited impact; there is a need for strong and transparent monitoring mechanisms.
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Insights from long-term studies of Indian villages
Himanshu , Praveen K. Jha , Gerry Rodgers
Posted on: 23 Sep 2016

Much of our knowledge of change in rural areas depends on longitudinal village studies. Drawing upon a number of village studies carried out over the years in India, this column provides a broad picture of how the economic and social structures of villages are changing, and the consequences for production, employment, migration, inequality and other key issues.
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The missing men
Chinmay Tumbe
Posted on: 01 Sep 2016
Topics:   Gender , Jobs
Tags:   migration

Studies on skewed sex ratios in India typically focus on female deficits attributed to factors such as gender discrimination. This column finds that regions covering over 200 million people in India experience mass male out-migration with a marked impact on working-age group sex ratios. These regions are remittance economies with gendered labour markets that secure higher wages for men in the service economy but provide limited prospects for the upward mobility of women.
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Analysing worker responses to a contract change
Rajshri Jayaraman , Debraj Ray
Posted on: 08 Aug 2016

Higher-powered incentives are generally believed to increase worker productivity. In the context of an Indian tea plantation, this column examines a contract change wherein baseline wages were increased and incentive piece rates were lowered or kept unchanged. It finds that output increased by 20-80% in the following month but fell to original levels thereafter. Possible explanations for the observed impact are explored.
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Why is labour mobility in India so low?
Kaivan Munshi , Mark Rosenzweig
Posted on: 04 Jul 2016
Topics:   Jobs

Rural-to-urban migration is surprisingly low in India, compared with other large developing countries, leaving higher paying job opportunities unexploited. This column shows that well-functioning rural insurance networks are partly responsible, as they incentivise adult males to remain in villages. Policies that provide private credit to wealthy households or government safety nets to poor households would encourage greater labour mobility, but could have unintended distributional consequences.
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Women and the Indian job market: Glass ceiling or sticky floor?
Ashwini Deshpande , Deepti Goel , Shantanu Khanna
Posted on: 10 Jun 2016
Topics:   Gender , Jobs

The gender wage gap among regular wage and salaried workers in India was 49% in 2009-10. This column finds the bulk of the gap is due to discrimination against women in the job market, rather than different wage earning potential of men and women. The gender wage gaps are higher among lower earning workers.
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Trade liberalisation and intergenerational occupational mobility in urban India
Reshad N. Ahsan , Arpita Chatterjee
Posted on: 18 Apr 2016
Topics:   Jobs , Trade

While the trade reforms of the 90s led to a rapid increase in trade in India, there are concerns regarding the likely impact of the reforms on inequality. This column shows that innovation induced by international trade led to an increase in the employment share of high-skill occupations, which in turn, allowed an increasing number of sons from underprivileged backgrounds to enter better occupations than their respective fathers.
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How has MNREGA impacted the lives of women and children in India?
Subha Mani
Posted on: 15 Mar 2016

In this article, Subha Mani, Professor of Economics at Fordham University, summarises evidence that shows that MNREGA has mostly positively impacted the lives of women and children in India.

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What explains the decline in female labour force participation in India?
Urmila Chatterjee , Rinku Murgai , Martin Rama
Posted on: 13 Jan 2016
Topics:   Gender , Jobs

It is often argued that female labour force participation is declining in India due to rising incomes that allow more women to stay at home, which is the preferred household choice in a predominantly patriarchal society. However, this column contends that the trend is mainly explained by a scarcity of suitable jobs opportunities outside of farming and close to place of residence.
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